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Professional experience as a judge, professor and civil servant.


  • Since 2011: Judge of the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg
  • Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration 2010-2016
  • Judge at the Supreme Court of Estonia (administrative and constitutional law), 2004–2011
  • Professor of European Law, University of Tartu
  • Senior Civil Servant, Ministry of Justice, Estonia – worked on drafting Estonian Constitutional Amendments for EU accession


  • Conseil d’État, Paris
  • Bundesverwaltungsgericht, Leipzig
  • Legal Service of the European Commission, Brussels
  • Washington Workshop on Diplomacy and Global Affairs
  • Ministry of Justice, Stockholm


  • President of the Consultative Council of European Judges of the Council of Europe (CCJE, 2008–2010)
  • President of the International Federation of European Law (FIDE, 2010–2012)
  • Member of the board of the Policy think-tank Praxis (Estonia)
  • Member of the scientific committee of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights


  • Chevalier de l’ordre national du Mérite (France)
  • Order of the White Star, fourth class (Estonia)


Author of law books, a legal dictionary and numerous other publications